Sensing In-Situ temperatures by coordinates in Fused Filament Fabrication for identifying interlayer anisotropic mechanical properties and enabling post-FEM analysis

DS 122: Proceedings of the Design Society: 24th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED23)

Year: 2023
Editor: Kevin Otto, Boris Eisenbart, Claudia Eckert, Benoit Eynard, Dieter Krause, Josef Oehmen, Nadège Troussier
Author: Amlie, Erik; Fylling, Emil; Eikevåg, Sindre Wold; Nesheim, Ole S.; Steinert, Martin; Elverum, Christer W.
Series: ICED
Institution: NTNU
Section: Design Methods
Page(s): 3135-3144
DOI number:


In Additive Manufacturing (AM), new generations of polymer composites presented as engineering- grade materials provide high-end mechanical properties with the design freedom AM provides. Interlayer anisotropy is the main challenge in both in-situ optimization and post-analysis in transitioning from prototypes to high-performance components in fused filament fabrication (FFF). Recent studies show a direct correlation between layer fusion temperature and mechanical properties. In this paper, we present synchronized position and temperature data and study how a component changes based on layer height and geometry. An IR sensor transfers data while printing a G-code generated by FullControllGcode, printing in a single direction and recording temperature in front of the nozzle. Results show that within each layer, a Δt of 20°C at thinner geometries, the heat loss will provide a reduction in mechanical properties and further heat loss occurs when moving away from the heated bed. By using the presented temperature mesh in further studies, post- printed anisotropic components can be analyzed by FEM, and the FFF process can be adaptively optimized based on location, size and geometry.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Open source design, 3D printing, Thermal analysis, Layer temperature

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