Using Likelihood Ratio Table and Na

DS 122: Proceedings of the Design Society: 24th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED23)

Year: 2023
Editor: Kevin Otto, Boris Eisenbart, Claudia Eckert, Benoit Eynard, Dieter Krause, Josef Oehmen, Nad
Author: Siew, William (1); Silva, Arlindo (1); Rai, Bina (2)
Series: ICED
Institution: 1: Singapore University of Technology and Design; 2: National University of Singapore
Section: Design Methods
Page(s): 3751-3760
DOI number:


The concept of inclusivity involved an understanding of people, programmes and places, embedded with complex issues. 21 student designers took part in a first-of-its-kind five-day codesign programme to develop solutions for inclusive and engaged communities with residents. This quasi-experimental study aimed to develop a value-based approach using likelihood ratio table and a Naïve Bayes classifier method to assess the success of a codesign programme, in comparison to past programmes with different design challenges. Methodology proposed a systematic investigation to evaluate this programme holistically. Students discussed with stakeholders to uncover the complexities of human and environmental factors in design at early stage of ideation, and semi-structured participants’ observation tasks were considered instead of researcher's observations in the method of assessment. Selected teams were introduced to two new design methods to empathise better with seniors, i.e., Care Circle and See and Shoot. Findings revealed that these teams showed greater levels of critical inquiry when overcoming three key challenges, i.e., (1) identifying key personas, (2) examining potential use environment, and (3) access to market.

Keywords: Bayesian approach, Complexity, Design education, Design methods, Inclusivity

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